Part A: Fundamentals of Human Geography

Unit I : Human Geography:

  • Nature and Scope

Unit II : People

  • Population-distribution,
  • density and growth
  • Population change-spatial patterns and structure
  • determinants of population change
  • Population Composition – age-sex ratio
  • rural-urban composition
  • Human development – concept
  • selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit III : Human Activities

  • Primary activities – concept and changing trends
  • gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture
  • people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries
  • Secondary activities-concept
  • manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale
  • agro based and mineral based industries
  • people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries
  • Tertiary activities-concept
  • trade, transport and tourism services
  • people engaged in tertiary activities – some examples from selected countries
  • Quaternary activities-concept
  • people engaged in quaternary activities –
  • case study from selected countries.

Unit IV : Transport, Communication and Trade

  • Land transport – roads, railways
  • trans-continental railways
  • Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes
    Air transport- Intercontinental air routes
    Oil and gas pipelines
  • Satellite communication and cyber space
  • importance and usage for geographical information
  • use of GPS
  • International trade- bases and changing patterns
  • ports as gateways of international trade
  • role of WTO in international trade

Unit V : Human Settlements

  • Settlement types – rural and urban
  • morphology of cities (case study)
  • distribution of mega cities
  • problems of human settlements in developing countries

Part B : India: People and Economy

Unit VI : People

  • Population: distribution
  • density and growth
  • composition of population – linguistic
  • religious; sex, rural-urban
  • occupational-regional variations in growth of population
  • Migration: international, national-causes and consequences
  • Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns
  • Population, environment and development

Unit VII : Human Settlements

  • Rural settlements – types and distribution
  • Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification

Unit VIII : Resources and Development

  • Land resources- general land use
  • agricultural land use
  • geographical conditions and distribution of major crops
  • (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber)
  • agricultural development and problems
  • Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic
  • industrial and other uses; scarcity of water
  • conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management
  • Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic
  • (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals
  • conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity)
  • non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation
  • Industries – types, factors of industrial location
  • distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel
  • cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries
  • impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalization on industrial location; industrial clusters
  • Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study)

Unit IX : Transport, Communication and International Trade

  • Transport and communication-
  • roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines
  • Geographical information and communication net works
  • International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade
  • sea ports and their hinterland and airports.

Unit X : Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems

  • Environmental pollution
  • urban-waste disposal Urbanization, rural-urban migration
  • problems of slums Land degradation