Chapter-1 MATTER IN OUR SURROUNDING
- Definition of matter
- Properties of particles of matter
- solid, liquid and gas
- characteristics – shape, volume, density
- change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.
- Factors and effects of evaporation.
Chapter -2 IS MATTER AROUND US PURE?
- Elements, compounds and mixtures.
- Heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures,
- Colloids and suspensions.
- Techniques to separate components of a mixture
- Evaporation crystallization sublimation chromatography distillation fractional distillation separation by separating funnel
- Fractional distillation of air
Chapter -3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES
- Atoms and molecules,
- Law of constant proportions,
- Atomic and molecular masses.
- Formula of chemical compounds
- Mole concept:
- Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers.
Chapter-4 STRUCTURE OF ATOM
- Discovery of Electrons, protons and neutrons,
- Thomson’s atomic model
- Rutherford’s atomic model
- Bohr’s atomic model
- chemical formula of common compounds.
- Isotopes and Isobars.
Chapter-5 THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
- Cell – Basic Unit of life
- History of discovery of cell
- prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells,
- multicellular organisms;
- cell membrane and cell wall,
- cell organelles
- Chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus,
- chromosomes – basic structure, number.
- Difference between plant and animal cell
- Basic concept of tissue and labour division
- Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals;
- Epithelial tissue
- Connective tissue
- Muscular tissue
- Nervous tissue
- Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants).
- Structure of xylem and phloem
Chapter-7 DIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISMS
- Diversity of plants and animals
- Basic issues in scientific naming,
- basis of classification.
- Hierarchy of categories / groups,
- Major groups of plants (salient features)
- Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms).
- Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).
- Concept of motion
- Distance and displacement,
- Speed and velocity;
- uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line
- Distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion,
- Derivation of equations of motion by graphical method
- elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
Chapter-9 FORCE AND LAWS OF MOTION
- Force and Motion,
- Newton’s Laws of Motion
- Action and ReaMotionforces
- Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass,
- Force and Acceleration.
- Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum.
Chapter -10 GRAVITATION
- Universal Law of Gravitation,
- Force of Gravitation of the earth (gravity),
- Acceleration due to Gravity;
- Mass and Weight;
- Free fall.
- Thrust and Pressure.
- Archimedes’ Principle;
- Elementary idea of Relative Density.
Chapter -11 WORK AND ENERGY
- Work, energy and power:
- Work done by a Force,
- Balanced and unbalanced forces
- Kinetic and Potential energy
- Law of conservation of energy.
- Concept of power
- Sound: Nature of sound and its propagation in various media,
- speed of sound
- Range of hearing in humans
- ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR.
- Structure of the Human ear (Auditory aspect only).
Chapter-13 NATURAL RESOURCES
- Physical resources: Air, Water, Soil.
- Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures
- movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India.
- Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction).
- Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages.
- Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature: Water, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen.
- Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; Use of
- fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming.
Chapter-14 WHY DO WE FALL ILL?
- Health and its failure.
- Infectious and Non-infectious diseases,
- their causes and manifestation.
- Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and Protozoans)
- Principles of treatment and prevention.
- Immunization and vaccination
- Pulse Polio programmes.